AGARICUS BLAZEI MURILL
Agaricus subrufescens (incorrectly known as Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sylvaticus) is a species of mushroom, commonly known as Agaricus Blazei Murill Mushroom, Almond mushroom, or himematsutake (Japanese: "princess matsutake") and by a number of other names ( including ABM for Agaricus blazei Murill, Cogumelo do Sol - mushroom of the sun, Cogumelo de Deus - mushroom of God, Cogumelo de Vida - mushroom of life, Himematsutake, Royal Sun Agaricus, Mandelpilz, and Almond Mushroom).
Agaricus Blazei Murill is a choice edible, with a somewhat sweet taste and fragrance of almonds. The almond smell of the mushroom is mostly due to the presence of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzonitrile, and methyl benzoate.
Agaricus Blazei Murill is also well known as a medicinal mushroom, for its purported medicinal properties, due to research which indicates it may stimulate the immune system.
Agaricus Blazei Murill (Hime-matsutake) is a newly discovered species of mushroom that is attracting the attention of many scientists in the world now. Artificial cultivation of this Brazilian mushroom was achieved for the first time in the world by Iwaide Fungology Institute (founder: Dr. Inosuke Iwaide, a professor at Tokyo University and Mie University) after many trials and errors. This mushroom was presented by professors Hitoshi Ito, Keishiro Shimura and Sensuke Naruse of mushroom research group at Mie University medical school as a highlight at the "the 39th General Meeting of Japanese Cancer Academy" in 1980.
The cap is initially hemispherical, later becoming convex, with a diameter of 5 to 18 centimetres (2.0 to 7.1 in). The cap surface is covered with silk-like fibers, although in maturity it develops small scales (squamulose). The color of the cap may range from white to grayish or dull reddish-brown; the cap margin typically splits with age. The flesh of Agaricus Blazei Murill is white, and has the taste of "green nuts", with the odor of almonds. The gills are not attached to the stalk (free), narrow, and crowded closely together. They start out whitish in color, then later pinkish and finally black-brown as the spores mature. Spores are ellipsoid, smooth, dark-purplish brown when viewed microscopically, with dimensions of 6–7.5 by 4–5 µm. The stipe is 6 to 15 centimetres (2.4 to 5.9 in) by 1 to 1.5 centimetres (0.39 to 0.59 in) thick, and bulbous at the base. Initially solid, the stipe becomes hollow with age; it is cottony (floccose) to scaly towards the base. The annulus is abundant and double-layered; it is bent downwards towards the stem, smooth and whitish on the upper side, and covered with cottony scales on the lower side.
Agaricus Blazei Murill (Agaricus subrufescens) forms fruitbodies singly or in clusters in leaf litter in rich soil, often in domestic habitats.
Agaricus Blazei Murril is a mushroom belonging to a numerous family of supporters of human health. Grows spontaneously in Piedade highlands of southeastern Brazil, where it is known as "Cogmelo de Dios" or Mushroom of Gods. Due to the special conditions of air, soil, moisture and high temperature, its cultivation has managed only a few decades ago and is now practiced in some parts of South America, China and Japan. Conditions for growth of this moshroom are, inter alia, high temperature, much humidity, purified air, soil containing wild horse droppings, little rain in the evening.
HELP IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CANCER
Its most important compounds include vitamin B1, B2 and a group of polysaccharides (complex sugars) believed to be the compounds responsible for its immune-boosting effects. All known medicinal mushrooms contain polysaccharides, however, Agaricus contains the highest amount. After several successful clinical trials theses substances have been used as an immune adjuvant in the treatment of HIV patients in the US; in Japan, they are widely used in cancer therapy. The polysaccharides activate the immune system and thereby increase the production of interleukin-1, which indirectly functions to destroy or prevent the proliferation of cancer cells. In addition, natural killer cells, which attack infected cells and possible cancerous cells and destroy bacteria as well as viruses, are activated.